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The alarming increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) underscores the need for efficient screening and preventive strategies. Select protein biomarker profiles emerge over time during T2DM development. Periodic evaluation of these markers will increase the predictive ability of diabetes risk scores. Noninvasive methods for frequent measurements of biomarkers are increasingly being investigated. Application of salivary diagnostics has gained importance with the establishment of significant similarities between the salivary and serum proteomes. The objective of this study is to identify T2DM-specific salivary biomarkers by literature-based discovery. A serial interrogation of the PubMed database was performed using MeSH terms of specific T2DM pathological processes in primary and secondary iterations to compile cohorts of T2DM-specific serum markers. Subsequent search consisted of mining for the identified serum markers in human saliva. More than 60% of T2DM-associated serum proteins have been measured in saliva. Nearly half of these proteins have been reported in diabetic saliva. Measurements of salivary lipids and oxidative stress markers that can exhibit correlated saliva plasma ratio could constitute reliable factors for T2DM risk assessment. We conclude that a high percentage of T2DM-associated serum proteins can be measured in saliva, which offers an attractive and economical strategy for T2DM screening.
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